The Metaphysical Genesis Of Ontology
Absract. The paper analyzes the metaphysical genesis of the ontology. Two primary forms of metaphysical thinking are defined. The first form is defined as dogmatical metaphysical thinking. The latter includes the substantial form of existence, which is explicated through the ontic apriori semantics and leads to contradictions. These contradictions are established through the language of classical logic. The second form is defined as critical metaphysical thinking, which is objectless and contains logical syntax that sets apriori the boundaries of the possible semantics of the existence of the transcendental consciousness’ objects. In this sense, the ontology is a relative semantics, which is a consequence of the metaphysical critique of the ontic form of existence.
Keywords: metaphysics; ontology; transcendental language; critical thinking
Dr. Georgi Donev, Assoc. Prof.
South-West University “Neofit Rilski”
Beyond Heidegger’s Critic Of Metaphysics In Art
Absract. The text presents critically situations, which are fundamental for Heidegger’s critic of aesthetics. We comment not necessarily and solely on claims explicitly related to the aesthetical but also at general claims in implicit relation to art. The analysis implies that the regions lacking coverage regarding art by Heidegger’s thought can be uncovered through the restoration of metaphysical analysis. Respectively our conclusion has to do with the relationship between the definition of objectivity a perspective provides and the object it claims, the discrepancy of which Heidegger’s thought exemplifies problematically.
Keywords: Heidegger; aesthetics; metaphysics; presence; indefinite ontological status
Dr. Nikifor Avramov
University of Sofia
Discourses’ Transformation of World Religions and Gender Inequality at the End of the XX – Beginning of the XXI Centuries
Abstract. Purpose. Explore the sociocultural reasons for the transformation of discourses of religion and gender in modern political systems. Theoretical basis. In philosophy, as in other sciences, the feminist direction emerged and took shape within the framework of liberalism as an emancipation project with the main goal of political equality. Although this path – unlike the radically separatist – is modernist, it, like a thousand years ago, forms a stable opposition with the essentialist attitudes of world religions. Within the framework of the social constructivist methodology, gender is defined as the cause and result of the interactions of power and inequality of women. As gender discourses change, systems change, but world religions today reproduce inequality, supporting traditional gender systems. Scientific novelty. At the beginning of the XXI century. Gender is less and less a component of unchanging identity and more and more a product of interactions with other people, social institutions and social structures. Thus, gender is a constantly created property of situational interaction, and not a role or a sign. The concept of gender in theology opens up a huge field for interpretation, showing a slight tendency to change, and is still identified with the transcendental and supernatural as masculine and natural and physical as feminine. Findings. The causes of gender inequality are difficult to comprehend for a strictly rational reflection environment. Women’s inequality cannot be fully reduced to a system of norms and laws. Theology associated with early Christian teachings shows particular stability in the interpretation of women as “invisible” and apolitical, taking advantage of the Old Testament ideas about the nature of women, while also offering no explanation for the “invisibility” of women in their purely private sphere.
Keywords: nature; spirituality; theology; gender order; ideology; culture
Roman Oleksenko, Karina Oleksenko
Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University (Ukraine)
Dialogical Fragments On The Subject Of Sacrifice
Absract. The proposed text deals with some aspects of the topic of sacrifice – a topic in the field of philosophy and sociology of religion, cultural and philosophical anthropology. The Old Testament and New Testament understandings on the issue are compared, emphasizing the importance of the principle of personality as the main dividing line. Kierkegaard's famous position (and that of Lev Shestov who followed him in this respect) on the biblical story with Abraham and Isaac is commented on. The views of the religious philosopher (and concentration camp inmate) Alexander Meyer, whose work on sacrifice (1933) was later published in Paris, are presented.
Keywords: sacrifice; A. Tarkovsky; Abraham and Isaak; Kierkegaard; Lev Shestov; Alexander Meyer
rof. Nina Dimitrova
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria)
Actualization of Axiology Development: Problems, Searches, Solutions
Abstract. The article examines the concept of “value” in the context of the general planetary process of anomie at the level of local cultures and subcultures, when the possibilities of value-normative regulation of social processes are reduced to a minimum. Under these conditions, the predictive function of axiology has become particularly relevant, and the authors raise the question of the basis for the values evolution reproduction. The search to this answer involves the application of system analysis and retrospection. The study of the main axiological concepts based on the connection between objective and subjective in this perspective allows to identify the main contours of value consciousness that coincide with the dominant concepts: biological (objective-naturalistic concept), social (dialectical-materialistic concept), individual (subjective-psychological concepts) and existential (objective-transcendental and ontological ideal realistic concepts). The material summarizes the main methodological and cognitive limitations of these concepts, which are in fact natural, since they belong to specific contours of value consciousness. At the same time, a number of provisions can be considered as general ones. As a result, the authors hypothesize the possibility to develop a synthetic concept of axiology allowing predicting the development of cultural value core as an imperative of socio-cultural processes.
Keywords: values; concept; anomie; developmental biology
Lyubov’ Shabatura, Anton Yazovskikh
Tyumen Industrial University (Russia)
Truth in Legal Norms
Abstract. The text examines the status of the truth in the legal norms, trying to answer the questions of whether they can be a subject to a truth assessment and, if such assessment is possible, how a truth value can be attributed to legal norms.
To achieve this goal, first of all, the text discusses some basic linguistic conceptions concerning the nature and truth of legal norms and subsequently, a complex approach is being proposed for attributing truth-value to legal norms. On the one hand, the latter’s being studied by the methods of deontic logic and theory of possible worlds, and on the other hand, their relation to truth is being explained by semantic anti-realism.
Keywords: Anti-Realism; Deontic logic; legal norms; possible worlds; truth conditions
Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Bulgaria)
Philosophy of Arts
The ‘Selfie’ Phenomenon as a Basis for Self-identity Search. Preamble to a Philosophy of the Selfie Photography
Abstract. The topicality of the problem is connected with the fact that nowadays photography has an important role in shaping the perception of ourselves. The state-of-the-arts analysis of the work related to the study of the ‘selfie’ phenomenon has shown the necessity for a deeper philosophical understanding of this issue. Thus, the article is meant by its authors as a pilot research to a larger and long-term humanitarian plunge in the philosophy of selfie photography, directly addressing the research fields of personality philosophy and psychology, visual anthropology, culture studies, self-presentation theory, behaviorist paradigm, semiotics of photography, and aesthetics of body. The study prospects shall provide an opportunity to develop and consider important discussions concerning contrasting philosophical aspects of selfie as social and culture phenomenon.
Keywords: selfie; photography; self-knowledge; identity; virtual space; self-expression
1)Sylvia Borissova, 2)Liliana Yakovleva
1)Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria)
2)Siberian Federal University (Russia)
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
The COVID-19 Pandemic: Questions about Education and its Prospects
Abstract. The text offers an education-related reading of the state of emergency in the Bulgarian society in the conditions of a pandemic. It touches upon the reasons for regression, but also the opportunities for radical transformation of Bulgarian education and its optimization in the future. The article examines the ethical issues teachers face in a time of societal crisis when various moral dilemmas are to be resolved. The scientific text discusses new ideas in the Bulgarian educational space, such as those for home education and family-type schooling. The article’s set tasks include: (1) Pinpointing the problem of the pandemic as a typical educational problem; (2) Pointing out the educational resources related to limiting the social consequences of the pandemic; (3) Raising the question of teachers’ ethical codes in times of Pandemic as a moral corrective for their professional conduct. The research is mainly related to the language of „philosophy of education“ and its conceptual apparatus.
Keywords: pandemic; health and social crisis; education; ethical codes/ codes of conduct; educational resources; blended type of schooling; home schooling; optimization of education
1)Veska Gyuviyska, 2)Nikolay Tsankov
1)South-West University “Neofit Rilski” (Bulgaria)
2)Trakia University (Bulgaria)
The Competence Approach And Philosophy Education In School
Absract. One of the goals of the vision of the European Education Area is to promote the development of competencies as a condition for achieving full personal, social, and professional development. The article examines the competence approach in connection with the updated European Reference Framework for Lifelong Learning of 22 May 2018 and in this regard, the need to update the Law on Preschool and School Education in Bulgaria, which entered into force two years earlier on 01 August 2016. This update is related to the teaching of philosophy, insofar as the newly formulated "Personal competence, social competence, and learning skills" is an emphasis on building personal and social knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are a major part of the content of the subject philosophy, and according to the legislation each subject has a clear connection with specific key competence.
Keywords: competence approach; key competence; transferable competencies; personal competence; social competence; philosophy
Ms. Milena Plugarova-Raycheva, PhD Student
University of Sofia